|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ) is a self- report measure of gamblers' cognitive distortions. GBQ test items were constructed on the basis of theory, empirical evidence, and expert review. Four hundred three adults completed the initial set of items, and 21 items were selected to make up the final GBQ. The factor structure of the GBQ consisted of 2 closely related factors: Luck/Perseverance and Illusion of Control. The full scale showed good internal consistency (α = .92) and adequate test–retest reliability (r = .77). Problem and pathological gamblers scored higher than nonproblem gamblers on the GBQ and its factors. GBQ scores were moderately correlated with the duration of gambling sessions among problem and pathological gamblers, and there was no relationship between GBQ scores and social desirability.