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This study examined the effect of depressive symptoms on smoking abstinence and treatment adherence among smokers with a past history of alcohol dependence. Participants (24 women, 27 men) were randomly assigned to behavioral counseling (BC) or behavioral counseling plus cognitive-behavioral mood management training (CBT). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD; M. Hamilton, 1967) was administered to assess baseline depressive symptoms. Participants who received CBT and had higher HRSD scores were more likely to achieve short-term abstinence from smoking and attend more treatment sessions than those with lower depression scores, whereas for BC participants the effect of HRSD scores was the opposite. Smokers with a history of alcohol dependence reporting high levels of depressive symptoms may benefit from a mood management intervention.