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This is the 1st study to examine the effects of individual- and program-level characteristics on treatment attrition within a prison-based setting. The sample of 1,446 men and women were from 19 programs. Differences were found in both individual- and program-level predictors of disciplinary discharges and dropouts. Dropouts were more likely to be women and enter treatment with lower levels of motivation. Individuals who were disciplinary discharges from treatment were more likely to be young, have a history of violence, and have a diagnosis of antisocial personality. Only 1 program factor—an emphasis on disciplinary discharge for violation of program rules—was associated with disciplinary discharge. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.