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This study investigated the effects of illicit substance use and alcohol on the occurrence of violence among men in batterers' intervention and their female partners. Results showed that over half of the batterers reported using illicit substances in the past year, and over one third of partners were reported to have used 1 or more illicit substances in the past year. Relative to the non-substance users, substance users scored significantly higher on all measures of perpetration and receipt of intimate partner violence after controlling for alcohol use. Results also showed that illicit substance use uniquely predicted specific forms of violence perpetration and victimization. The results highlight the need for interventions tailored to address substance use and violence concurrently.