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This study focuses on comparing reports of cigarette consumption using an interactive voice response (IVR) system and the timeline follow-back (TLFB) method. As part of a smoking cessation trial, daily reports of cigarette use were collected using an IVR system and TLFB for 7 days after participants attempted to quit smoking. Reports of cigarette consumption were assessed for the entire sample (N = 381) and for the subset of nonabstinent participants (n = 129 smokers). The results revealed high correlations between reports of smoking behavior, as assessed by IVR and TLFB. Compliance with the TLFB was superior to compliance with the IVR system. This problem should be addressed if researchers wish to use an IVR system in future smoking cessation clinical trials.