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Evidence of the effects of negative affect (NA) and sexual craving on unprotected sexual activity remains scant. We hypothesized that NA and sexual craving modify the same day association between low self-efficacy to use condoms and unprotected anal or vaginal sex, and the same-day association between alcohol use during the 3 hours prior to sexual activity and unprotected sex. We used an electronic daily diary, drawing on a sample of 125 men and women recruited from an agency serving economically disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS. Casual or steady partner type designation and perceived partner HIV serostatus were also examined. Findings support the hypothesized moderating effects of high NA and sexual craving on the association between low self-efficacy and unprotected sex, and the association between alcohol use and unprotected sex. Implications are discussed.