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A range of biopsychosocial changes occur during adolescence that contribute to changes in the sleep-wake system. Use of alcohol and cannabis also increases during early adolescence; however, limited studies have examined the associations between changes in the use of alcohol and cannabis and later sleep problems. Participants (n = 245) aged 12 years were recruited from schools and completed a baseline assessment, which included questions about their alcohol and cannabis use. Three subsequent follow-up assessments took place approximately 2.5 years (age 14 years), 4 years (age 16 years), and 6 years (age 18 years) after baseline, with sleep quality assessed at age 18 years. Earlier drug use was associated with poorer sleep quality at age 18 years, with different facets of alcohol and cannabis important in these associations. For alcohol, heavy episodic drinking across time was associated with poorer sleep; lifetime use at age 18 years (but not prior) was also associated with poorer sleep. For cannabis, recent use at age 18 years was associated with poor sleep quality. Our findings suggest that there are associations between specific facets of alcohol and cannabis use that are related to poor sleep in adolescents.