Heterosexual Self-Presentation and Other Individual- and Community-Based Correlates of HIV Testing Among Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men


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Abstract

From 2010 to 2014, HIV diagnoses among Latino men who have sex with other men (LMSM) have increased by 14%, whereas diagnoses declined by 11% among White, non-Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). This health disparity is in part due to exposure to other LMSM with undiagnosed HIV infections. To effectively engage LMSM who are unaware of their serostatus, profiles of men differing in theorized determinants of HIV testing must be considered. In this retrospective study, we examined data from 546 LMSM to investigate whether hypothesized individual- (traditional masculine gender role conformity, sexual identity development status, alcohol and illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviors, perceived HIV susceptibility, and HIV stigma) and community-based (HIV prevention programming, access to health care, social support, and neighborhood collective efficacy) factors were associated with differences in HIV testing. Latent profile analysis was used to identify profiles of men, and subsequent analyses examined whether profiles exhibited differential proportions of HIV testing. Four latent profiles were observed. One profile (50.3% tested) differed markedly from all other profiles (5.1% to 11% tested) in HIV testing. Characteristics of participants in this unique profile included reporting lower levels of heterosexual self-presentation, sexual identity uncertainty (and high levels of sexual identity commitment), condom use, HIV stigma, education, and perceived HIV susceptibility than all other profiles. Findings could improve HIV testing rates among LMSM by specifying ways in which public health advertisements/campaigns and community-based testing outreach efforts could be tailored to men most at risk for transmitting HIV due to unknown serostatus.

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