Masculine Gender Role Expectations in China: A Consensual Qualitative Research-Modified Study


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Abstract

Much of the psychological literature is either focused on non-Hispanic White heteronormative forms of masculinities or utilizes measures that were developed primarily with White middle-class heterosexual men in the United States. This qualitative study sought to understand masculine gender role expectations in mainland China. A total of 50 men and 75 women were recruited to participate in this study through Sina Weibo. Responses were analyzed using consensual qualitative research–modified (Spangler, Liu, & Hill, 2012) methodology. The participants’ age ranged from 20 to 63 years (M = 30.77 years). The following eight domains of Chinese masculine gender role expectations emerged from data analyses: Be responsible, honest and law-abiding, caring, brave and self-starting, forgiving, respectful and nonviolent, rational and calm, and avoid femininity. Results from this study indicate that masculine gender role expectations in China vary across contexts and share little in common with hegemonic masculine gender role expectations. Results of the current study highlight the importance of considering cultural contexts when examining gender role expectations.

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