The Aging Men’s Masculinity Ideologies Inventory (AMMII): Dimensionality, Variance Composition, Measurement Invariance by Gender, and Validity

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Extant measures of masculinity ideologies assumed masculinities are ageless, were developed with only younger men in mind, and were validated primarily using college-aged adults. The present study reports the development and evaluation of a measure of the masculinity ideologies relevant to the lives of aging men, using a sample (N = 1,184) of adult men and women (aged 31–95), the Aging Men’s Masculinity Ideologies Inventory (AMMII). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on a randomly selected part of the data revealed a 15-item five-factor scale, which was supported with confirmatory factor analysis using the balance of the data. An analysis of variance composition through a series of confirmatory factor analyses found that the common (correlated) factors model fit the data best, which suggests that the subscale scores of distinct masculinity ideologies can be used in research, but it would not be advisable to calculate a total scale score to represent a general later-life masculinity ideology. The AMMII demonstrated configural and metric invariance between men and women for the five later-life masculinity standards, which indicates that mature and aging women and men share similar beliefs about what is expected of men’s later life gender practices. Finding convergent construct evidence for the validity of four of the AMMII factors encourages use of this short multidimensional scale. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and implications for research and practice.

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