Gender Role Strain and the Precarious Manhood of Sexual Minority Kenyan Men


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Abstract

Examining the impact of precarious manhood on the mental health of sexual minority men living in Kenya, we hypothesized that (a) men who have sex with men exclusively (MSME) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) would display differential patterns of conformity to norms of masculinity; (b) these differences would result in distinct patterns of association between masculine conformity and symptoms of psychological distress for MSME and MSMW; and (c) conformity to norms of masculinity would be bidirectionally associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using data collected from 391 young men who participated in a community-based, cross-sectional study of HIV-related risk and resilience among young sexual minority men in western Kenya, we ran a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to assess differences in conformity to masculine norms and four hierarchical linear regression models to examine the associations between conformity to masculine norms and symptoms of anxiety and depression for MSME and MSMW. MANOVA results revealed no significant differences between MSME and MSMW in overall conformity to masculinity, although MSMW were significantly more likely to conform to the masculine norm of power over women. Regression results revealed that conformity to norms of masculinity was bidirectionally associated with psychological distress and that these patterns of association were distinct for MSME and MSMW. The discussion explores possible explanations for revealed differences between MSME and MSMW using existing research. Clinical implications, limitations, and opportunities for future research are also discussed.Kuchunguza athari za uume hatari juu ya afya ya akili ya wanaume wachache wanaoishi nchini Kenya, tunazo nadhariatete kwamba (1) wanaume wanaojamiiana na wanaume pekee (MSME) na wanaume wanaoshiriki ngono na wanaume na wanawake (MSMW) wataonyesha mifumo tofauti ya kuzingatia kanuni za uume; (2) tofauti hizi zinaweza kusababisha mwelekeo tofauti wa ushirikiano kati ya ufanisi wa wanaume na dalili za dhiki ya kisaikolojia kwa MSME na MSMW; na (3) kuzingatia kanuni za uume kutakuwa na mwelekeo wa kuwili katika kuhusishwa na dalili za unyogovu na wasiwasi. Kutumia data zilizokusanywa kutoka kwa vijana mia tatu tisaini na moja ambao walishiriki katika utafiti uliokitishwa katika jamii, wa kuzingatia sehemu ya hatari ya kuhusiana na Virusi vya UKIMWI na ukakamavu kati ya vijana wa kiume walio wachache huko Magharibi mwa Kenya, Kenya, tuliendesha MANOVA kupima tofauti kulingana na kanuni za uume na mifano minne ya mwelekezo wa mstari mfano kierakia kutathmini mahusiano kati ya utiifu kwa kanuni za uume na ishara za wasiwasi na unyogovu wa MSME na MSMW. Matokeo ya MANOVA haukuonyesha tofauti kubwa kati ya MSME na MSMW kwa kufuata kanuni za uume, ingawa MSMW ilionyesha kaida za uume kudhirisha nguvu dhidi ya wanawake. Matokeo ya ukandamizaji yalibainisha kuwa kufuata kanuni za uume ulikuwa unahusishwa na ule mwelekeo wa kuwili katika shida ya kisaikolojia, na kwamba mifumo hii ya chama ilikuwa tofauti kabisa kati ya MSME na MSMW. Mjadala unaangazia maelezo yawezekanayo kuhusu tofauti hizi kati ya MSME na MSMW kwa kutumia tafiti zilizopo. Vikwazo, nafasi kwa tafiti za baadaye, na matokeo ya hatua za kimuundo, ki jamii na katika kiwango cha mtu binafsi pia zinajadiliwa.

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