The influence of team norms on the cohesion–self-reported performance relationship: a multi-level analysis

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Objective:To examine the potential moderating influence of team norms on the cohesion–self-reported performance relationship.Design:Hierarchical linear modeling was used to (1) assess the individual- and group-level variability in self-reported performance, and (2) predict the variability in self-reported performance using three group-level predictors: cohesion, norms, interaction between cohesion and norms.Method:The sample—298 athletes (112 male, 186 female) from 24 university and club level interactive and coactive sport teams-completed the Team Norm Questionnaire, the Group Environment Questionnaire, and Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale in relation to competitions, practices, and the off-season training.Results:Athletes on teams perceived to have stronger norms for social interactions and higher team social cohesion (i.e. group integration-social (GIS)) reported the best performance. Contrary to the hypothesis, the poorest self-reported performance was reported by athletes on teams characterized by perceptions of lower social cohesion and a stronger norm for social interaction. Task-related norms and task cohesion were not related to self-reported performance.Conclusions:The interrelationship among team cohesion, team norms, and performance is complex and warrants further investigation.

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