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It is well established that both aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are essential in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both modes of PA in the same sample.The main objective was to investigate the utility of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults.A total of 244 individuals completed self-report PMT constructs of vulnerability, severity, fear, response efficacy, self-efficacy and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training.PMT explained 19% (p < .001) and 20% (p < .001) of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training behaviour. Significant associations were found between self-efficacy (β = 0.45, p < .001) and gender (β = 0.15, p < .05) for aerobic PA, and self-efficacy (β = 0.48, p < .001) and age (β = 0.17, p < .05) for resistance training. PMT accounted for 43% (p < .001) and 56% (p < .001) of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. For aerobic PA, response efficacy (β = 0.14, p < .05) and self-efficacy (β = 0.59, p < .001) were significantly associated with intention, while response efficacy (β = 0.23, p < .001), self-efficacy (β = 0.64, p < .001) and age (β = 0.10, p < .05) were significantly related with resistance training intention.None of the unique constructs of the PMT (i.e., perceived vulnerability, severity and fear) were significant with either aerobic and resistance training intention. These results may guide the development of effective PA interventions in people with T2D.