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The principal aim of this study was to test fluctuations of sport state self-esteem components (Perceived Athletic Competence [PAC] and Satisfaction with Current Sport Performance [SCSP]) depending on match results (win, loss) and social comparison which is defined in three directions: downward, lateral or upward comparison.95 tennis players (33 women, 62 men; Mage = 28.06; SD = 10.22) volunteered to complete a State Self-Esteem Scale (EESES; Bardel, Fontayne, & Colombel, 2008) before and after a tennis competition. Subjects of this study are categorised according to their opponent's tennis level (respectively an inferior, comparable or a superior ranking).The results highlight: (1) a main effect of match result on PAC and SCSP levels (win > loss) and, (2) an interaction effect of match result and social comparison on PAC level. More precisely, PAC significantly decreases in case of defeat against an inferior ranked opponent (downward comparison). SCSP only fluctuates in relation with match result.It seems that failure has more impact on state self-esteem level than success. This study shows that sport state self-esteem level can fluctuate according to match result and social comparison.