Achievement goals and emotions in golf: The mediating and moderating role of perceived performance

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Objectives:This study sought to examine whether achievement goals predict positive and negative emotions in golf and whether perceived performance mediates and moderates this relationship.Design:A retrospective cross-sectional design was employed in this study.Method:Two hundred male golfers completed a multi-section questionnaire measuring achievement goals, perceived performance, and a range of emotions, after playing a competitive round of golf.Results:Task involvement positively predicted happiness (β = .29, p < .001) and excitement (β = .18, p = .023), and negatively predicted dejection (β = −.21, p = .007). Perceived performance partially mediated the relationship between task involvement and happiness (z = 3.18, p = .001), excitement (z = 3.12, p = .002), and dejection (z = −2.71, p = .028); that is, task involvement positively predicted perceived performance, which in turn positively predicted happiness and excitement and negatively predicted dejection. Perceived performance moderated the relationship between ego involvement and happiness, dejection, and anxiety: ego involvement predicted happiness negatively and dejection and anxiety positively when athletes perceived that they performed poorly, but was unrelated to these emotions when they thought that they performed well.Conclusions:Perceived performance should be examined when trying to understand the relationship between achievement goals and emotions in golf.

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