Perfectionism and achievement goals revisited: The 3 × 2 achievement goal framework


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Abstract

Objectives:Perfectionistic strivings (PS) and perfectionistic concerns (PC) have shown different profiles with the 2 × 2 achievement goals in sport. Whether PS and PC also show comparable profiles with the achievement goals of the expanded 3 × 2 framework, however, is unclear.Design:Cross-sectional.Method:We examined self-reported perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and the 3 × 2 achievement goals in 136 junior athletes (mean age 17.0 years).Results:The results of structural equation modeling showed that PS were positively associated with task-, self-, and other-approach goals and negatively with task- and self-avoidance goals. In contrast, PC were positively associated with task-, self-, and other-avoidance goals and negatively with task- and self-approach goals.Conclusions:The findings suggest that PS and PC show different profiles also with the 3 × 2 achievement goals which may help explain why the two perfectionism dimensions show differential relations with achievement-related outcomes in sport.HighlightsWe examined perfectionistic strivings (PS) and perfectionistic concerns (PC).Profiles were compared using the 3 × 2 achievement goal framework.PS and PC showed unique profiles.PS were positively associated with approach goals.PC were positively associated with avoidance goals.

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