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This paper reviews current theory and research in music expectancy within an information-processing perspective. The neural basis of expectancy is explored with a review of research on the P3 wave and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV). The relationship between attention and expectancy is also discussed with particular emphasis on theories of controlled vs. automatic processing. Finally, neural network and prototype representations are described and their influence on music expectancy analyzed. Methodological considerations and future directions for research are addressed in each of these areas.