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Two experiments were conducted to investigate the final-tone extrapolating behavior of two music experts, one of Western classical music and the other of Japanese traditional music. The first experiment verified sehema-driven properties of the experts' melody cognition. Both experts' final tone extrapolation was highly rule-govemed, but the underlying properties of their melodic schema seemed quite different. The Western classical music expert tended to process given melodies within the Western diatonic tonal frame, while the Japanese traditional music expert tended to operate “bimusically.” That is, the latter processed some stimulus tone sequences based on the Japanese traditional tonal frame, but processed others based on the diatonic tonal frame. It was also confirmed that the melodic cognition of the Western music expert was more harmony-oriented, while that of the Japanese music expert was relatively contour-oriented. The second experiment conducted a more detailed investigation of the Western music experts' rules in extrapolating the final tones. Only the relationship between the responses of this expert and the Western diatonic scale structures was focused on. The response structures of this expert were analyzed in contrast to her subjective tonal structures for stimulus melodies and are discussed in terms of her tonal schema.