Glucose and lipid metabolism of long-term risperidone monotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

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Abstract

Risperidone has a relatively low risk of causing obesity and diabetes mellitus and is a first-line treatment for schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate glucose and lipid metabolism, and feeding-control parameters in schizophrenia patients treated with long-term risperidone monotherapy. Fifteen patients with paranoid-type schizophrenia who had been treated with risperidone and had Global Assessment of Function (GAF) scores >70 were selected and compared with healthy volunteers (n = 25). Single assessments of psychotic symptoms, side-effects, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS) score, bodyweight, body fat percentage and blood sampling were performed. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, adiponectin, prolactin and feeding-control parameters (ghrelin and leptin) were analyzed. The body fat percentage (P = 0.0018), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0150), fasting blood glucose (P = 0.0358), triglyceride (P = 0.0377), leptin (P = 0.0243), total ghrelin (P = 0.0067), active ghrelin (P = 0.0241) and prolactin (P < 0.0001) levels of patients treated with risperidone were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, while the HDL-cholesterol level (P = 0.0222) was significantly lower. Although the patients had very mild psychiatric symptoms and maintained functionally high levels, the glucose and lipid parameters were significantly impaired compared to healthy volunteers. A high level of plasma ghrelin might increase appetite, leading to exacerbation of metabolic impairment.

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