The gene coding for transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) has been reported to be associated with schizophrenia in a White population. The present study was then designed to replicate this initial finding in a Chinese population. A total of 428 individuals with schizophrenia and 555 control participants were recruited for genetic analysis. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the TGM2 gene were selected for genotyping, including rs2076380, rs7270785, rs4811528, and rs6023526, by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. None of these four single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped showed an association with schizophrenia, although these 428 cases and 555 controls had 97% power to detect a disease association in small effect size (odds ratio=1.5). The present results did not support the TGM2 association with schizophrenia. It is thus possible that the TGM2 finding may have resulted from a random error of sampling.