Stem Cells Transplantation for the Treatment of Cognitive Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease

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Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome classically characterized by motor dysfunctions such as tremor, slowness of movement, postural instability, and rigidity. However, an additional decline in cognitive function to different degrees of compromise may coexist. Many therapeutic approaches have been established to treat and delay the progression of these impairments. Most of them are not restorative and just aim to keep the functions on. Stem cell (SC) transplantation is a promising treatment for many neurological conditions, and PD motor symptoms have been particularly targeted with this approach. Nonetheless, it is also potentially effective for cognitive deficits. By boosting the release of neurotropic factors, enhancing the synaptic density and plasticity, and improving the survival of endangered neurons and replacing those already lost, it targets underlying pathological mechanisms and therefore holds potential curative properties. The present minireview emphasizes the current evidence that encourages the use of this therapeutic approach for the treatment of PD-related cognitive deficits. All the same, this area of study require more and PD-specific studies that will help to elucidate the mechanisms of action through which this therapy could bring a clinical improvement, thereby assessing the real restorative potential of stem cell transplantation in this condition.

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