The present study investigated the effects of syllabic frequency and transposed letter neighbors—TLN—in visual word recognition in Brazilian Portuguese. To address this issue, two experiments were conducted with a factorial manipulation of syllabic frequency and TLN. In the first experiment, 30 Brazilian Portuguese university students took part in a lexical decision task. An inhibitory effect of TLN on reaction time was observed for words and pseudowords, and an inhibitory effect of syllabic frequency was observed for pseudowords. In the second experiment, 35 Brazilian Portuguese university students took part in a perceptual identification task. In this task, an inhibitory effect of syllabic frequency on accuracy was observed. There was not a reliable interaction between TLN and syllabic frequency in either task. These results can be used to constrain recent models of visual word recognition devised to explain syllabic frequency and transposed letter effects.