15-Cis-carotenoids found in the reaction center of a green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum and in the Photosystem I reaction center of a cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus

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Carotenoids were extracted, at ∼4 °C in complete darkness and under nitrogen atmosphere, from the reaction center (RC) of a green-sulfur bacterium and the Photosystem (PS) I RC of a cyanobacterium; each extract was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an apparatus equipped with a two-dimensional diode-array detector in order to spectroscopically identify cis–trans carotenoids while performing HPLC analysis. In the extract from the RC of Chlorobium tepidum, 15-cis and all-trans-γ-carotenes as well as 13-cis-, 15-cis- and all- trans-chlorobactenes (in the order of elution) were identified, whereas in the extract from the PS I RC of Synechococcus vulcanus, 15-cis-, all-trans- and 9-cis-β-carotenes were found. Thus, the universal presence of 15- cis carotenoids in the ’iron sulfur-type‘ RCs has been shown in addition to the previous cases of the ’quinone-type‘ RCs.

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