The effect of chromium (Cr) on photosystem II (PSII) electron transport and the change of proteins content within PSII complex were investigated. When Lemna gibba was exposed to Cr during 96 h, growth inhibition was found to be associated with an alteration of the PSII electron transport at both PSII oxidizing and reducing sides. Investigation of fluorescence yields at transients K, J, I, and P suggested for Cr inhibitory effect to be located at the oxygen-evolving complex and QA reduction. Those Cr-inhibitory effects were related to the change of the turnover of PSII D1 protein and the alteration of 24 and 33 kDa proteins of the oxygen-evolving complex. The inhibition of the PSII electron transport and the formation of reactive oxygen species induced by Cr were highly correlated with the decrease in the content of D1 protein and the amount of 24 and 33 kDa proteins. Therefore, functional alteration of PSII activity by Cr was closely related with the structural change within PSII complex.