The association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with neurobehavioral status was examined in 344 Japanese infants. Based on a questionnaire, their mothers were classified into three groups, Nonsmokers, Exsmokers, and Smokers. The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was administered three days after birth. Among the three groups, on the seven clusters and their 28 behavioral subscales there were no significant differences. The infants of Smokers had lower scores than those of Exsmokers and Nonsmokers on two behavioral items, general tone and peak of excitement. General tone remained significant after adjustment for covariates.