That opioids can mediate unconditioned reinforcement is well established, but there is little evidence indicating whether they modify conditioned reinforcement. Here, a tone which initially served as a discriminative stimulus for the availability of water reinforcement was established as a conditioned stimulus. When later given a choice between pressing a lever producing the tone (but not water) or one which produced no effect, rats chose the tone-producing lever 66% of the time. Naloxone (3.0 mg/kg) reduced overall responding and completely eliminated the preference for the tone-producing lever. Results are briefly discussed in terms of the importance of understanding mechanisms serving conditioned reinforcement.