THE INTERNAL CONSISTENCY AND CONCURRENT VALIDITY OF THE HOPELESSNESS, HELPLESSNESS, AND HAPLESSNESS SCALE IN A TURKISH CLINICAL SAMPLE1.2

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the Hopelessness, Helplessness, and Haplessness Scale developed by Lester (1998). Data were obtained from 75 psychiatric patients. Cronbach alphas ranged from .67 to .90. Scores on the scales were associated with Beck, Weissman, Lester, and Trexler's measure of hopelessness, with the correlation strongest for the new hopelessness scale.

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