The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) restructured clinical (RC) scales were designed to assess the underlying distinctive core components of the MMPI-2 clinical scales in order to enhance discriminant and convergent validity. Analyses utilizing inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment samples (Tellegen et al., 2003) have demonstrated improvements in the psychometric functioning of the RC scales in comparison with the original clinical scales. The current study extends these analyses by comparing the RC and original clinical scales in a sample of 1,284 men assessed at intake to a substance abuse treatment program in a VA setting. Results indicate that the RC scales demonstrate a general improvement in psychometric properties, with some increases in convergent and discriminant validity compared to their clinical scale counterparts. These results replicate Tellegen et al.'s (2003) findings in a different type of treatment setting and with different criteria, and complement their report by examining the validity of scales RC3 and RC9, for which Tellegen et al. (2003) did not have appropriate criteria. Implications for deliverers of psychological services in public sector settings are discussed.