In light of an increasing interest in different forms of psychotherapy across cultures, the present paper examined cultural factors and social influence techniques in Naikan therapy, a Japanese self-observation method. The goal of Naikan therapy is to restore the person's positive interpersonal relationships within a hierarchical Japanese social structure. The Naikan therapist arranges the physical and social environment to maximize the client's attention on self-observation and gives specific instructions to recollect the favors given to the client by significant others, especially by his mother. The client engages in self-observation of his past interpersonal events for over 100 hours continuously. The roles of therapist and client were discussed against the Japanese cultural background. Problems in Naikan therapy and its efficacy were reviewed from an empirical standpoint. It was concluded that the goal of Naikan therapy meets the Japanese value system and that cross-cultural studies of psychotherapy should consider various social influence techniques as they are applied in different cultures.