Objective: Exposure to physical workplace violence is one of the most serious threats to employee safety. The aim of the present study was to examine whether physical violence at work increases the risk of health-related absence from work and is associated with a greater risk of health-related absence from work in certain subgroups defined by gender, age, and educational level. Method: The study draws on data from a health and morbidity survey from 2006 merged with register data for each year in the period from 2006 to 2015 (n = 14,250). Rare event logistic regression models were used to examine physical violence at work as a predictor of health-related absence from work. Results: Physical violence at work predicted health-related absence from work several years after being exposed. In the 10-year follow-up period, individuals who had been exposed to physical workplace violence had 1.67 times higher odds of health-related absence than nonexposed individuals. The study also showed that exposed women, persons above 40 years of age, and individuals with a higher educational level had higher odds of health-related absence from work than their nonexposed counterparts. Conclusion: Employers and workers’ organizations should take action to support and help victims of physical workplace violence so that they may avoid future absence from the labor market. Victims of physical workplace violence are not affected by the incident only in the exposure year; they remain affected up to 8 years after.