The careers and contributions of some of those who have played a major role in the development of knowledge concerning gynaecological pathology are summarised. The emphasis is on workers of prior times beginning with those of the German-speaking school: Carl Ruge, Felix Marchand, Hermann Pfannenstiel, Oskar Frankl, Walter Schiller, and Robert Meyer. The two great Scandinavian investigators Lars Santesson and Gunnar Teilum are then considered, followed by those of the British school: John H. Teacher, Elizabeth Hurdon, Magnus Haines, Claud Taylor, Fred Langley, and Harold Fox. North American workers reviewed are: Thomas S. Cullen, Emil Novak, John Albertson Sampson, Arthur Hertig, and Robert E. Scully. The essay concludes with Australasian contributors, those considered in detail being: Hans Frederick Bettinger, Rupert A. Willis, Hazel (Mansell) Gore, Robert Barter, Harold Attwood, Andrew Östör (the last two also noted historians), Denys Fortune, Alan Ng, and Peter Russell.