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HIV behavioral surveillance in the United States is conducted among three groups: infected populations, high-risk populations, and the general population. We describe the general population component of the overall U.S. HIV behavioral surveillance program and identify priority analyses. This component comprises several data systems (ongoing, systematic, population-based surveys) through which data on risk behaviors and HIV testing are collected, analyzed, and disseminated. Multiple data systems are needed to balance differences in scope and purpose, as well as strengths and weaknesses of the sampling frames, mode of administration, and frequency of data collection. In a concentrated epidemic, such as in the United States, general population data play a small but important role in monitoring the potential spread of infection more broadly, particularly given increases in HIV transmission through heterosexual contact.