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Since the height of HIV incidence in the mid-1980s, advances in treatment have delayed progression of HIV infection. As a result, surveillance of AIDS cases alone is no longer sufficient to monitor the current status of the HIV epidemic. At the national level, new HIV diagnoses and progression of these cases to AIDS are used to describe the epidemic. The capacity to monitor the national HIV epidemic has consistently improved over the last several years. An increasing number of states report diagnosed HIV cases to the national surveillance system, allowing data from this system to better represent the national picture. Monitoring the national HIV epidemic depends on a nationwide system using standardized methods of data collection, and establishing such a comprehensive system remains one of the highest priorities for national HIV case surveillance.