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In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participating state and local health departments, universities, and community-based organizations applied venue-based, time-space sampling methods for the first wave of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance of men who have sex with men (NHBS-MSM). Conducted in 17 metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico from November 2003 through April 2005, NHBS-MSM methods included: (1) formative research to learn the venues, times, and methods to recruit MSM; (2) monthly sampling frames of eligible venues and day-time periods that met attendance, logistical, and safety criteria; and (3) recruitment of participants in accordance with randomly generated venue calendars. Participants were interviewed on HIV risk and prevention behaviors, referred to care when needed, and compensated for their time. By identifying the prevalence and trends of HIV risk and prevention behaviors, NHBS-MSM data may be used at local, state, and federal levels to help obtain, direct, and evaluate HIV prevention resources for MSM.