Outcomes of Hemiepiphyseal Stapling for Genu Valgum Deformities in Patients With Multiple Hereditary Exostoses: A Comparative Study of Patients With Deformities of Idiopathic Cause

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Abstract

Background:

Patients with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) frequently present with a genu valgum deformity. Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis, such as hemiepiphyseal stapling, is a relatively safe surgical method to correct angular deformities in skeletally immature patients, but its outcomes for genu valgum deformity in MHE patients have not been extensively reported. We investigated the outcomes of hemiepiphyseal stapling in MHE patients (MHE group) and compared those with the outcomes in patients with idiopathic deformities (idiopathic group) after adjusting for potential bias.

Methods:

Data from 70 limbs with genu valgum deformity (15 MHE and 55 idiopathic), which had undergone hemiepiphyseal stapling, were retrospectively reviewed. The outcomes were focused on the achievement of satisfactory correction and the velocity of correction. The independent effects of each characteristic on each outcome were investigated using multivariate analyses. The outcomes between the groups were also compared after 1:2 matching using propensity score analysis.

Results:

The mean valgus angle of the MHE group was 7.4±4.1 degrees at stapling and was corrected to 1.3±3.0 degrees at staple removal. The rate of satisfactory corrections was not different between the MHE and idiopathic groups (67% and 70%, respectively, P=0.820). However, the correction velocity was significantly lower in the MHE group than in the idiopathic group on both multivariate analysis (P=0.001) and matching comparison (4.4 vs. 7.9 degrees/y, P<0.001). The duration of correction was longer in the MHE group than in the idiopathic group by approximately half a year (1.5±0.6 vs. 0.9±0.3 y, respectively, P=0.003).

Conclusions:

In MHE patients with genu valgum deformity, satisfactory correction can be achieved by hemiepiphyseal stapling and is comparable with that seen in idiopathic patients. However, the MHE group showed lower correction velocity and required a longer time by about one half year for correction compared with the idiopathic group. Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis should be considered at an earlier age for patients with MHE compared with those with idiopathic deformity.

Level of Evidence:

Level III—prognostic study.

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