Factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination among men who have sex with men: a systematic review of published research
This systematic review identified and synthesised evidence from published research regarding personal and environmental factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination uptake among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in low prevalence, high-income countries. A systematic literature search identified 18 eligible papers that addressed factors potentially associated with HBV vaccination uptake among MSM, of which 16 reported research conducted in the US. Studies assessed possible associations between HBV vaccination among MSM and socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural and social-cognitive factors and indicators of health service access. Converging evidence was found for associations between HBV vaccination and younger age, gay self-identification, and not using alcohol and drugs; evidence suggests a lack of association between HBV vaccination and ethnicity. There was converging evidence for associations between HBV vaccination and social-cognitive factors, in particular knowledge, perceived vulnerability and perceived severity regarding HBV infection, and perceived barriers to HBV vaccination. Evidence further supported associations between HBV vaccination and indicators of health service access. While research regarding factors associated with HBV vaccination among MSM remains limited, the identified correlates of HBV vaccination among MSM provide important guidance for the development of health promotion interventions to effectively increase coverage of HBV vaccination among MSM.