Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Elderly Patients: Indirect Calorimetry vs Predictive Equations
Background: Predictive equations (PEs) are used for estimating resting energy expenditure (REE) when the measurements obtained from indirect calorimetry (IC) are not available. This study evaluated the degree of agreement and the accuracy between the REE measured by IC (REE-IC) and REE estimated by PE (REE-PE) in mechanically ventilated elderly patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: REE-IC of 97 critically ill elderly patients was compared with REE-PE by 6 PEs: Harris and Benedict (HB) multiplied by the correction factor of 1.2; European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) using the minimum (ESPENmi), average (ESPENme), and maximum (ESPENma) values; Mifflin–St Jeor; Ireton-Jones (IJ); Fredrix; and Lührmann. Degree of agreement between REE-PE and REE-IC was analyzed by the interclass correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman test. The accuracy was calculated by the percentage of male and/or female patients whose REE-PE values differ by up to ±10% in relation to REE-IC. Results: For both sexes, there was no difference for average REE-IC in kcal/kg when the values obtained with REE-PE by corrected HB and ESPENme were compared. A high level of agreement was demonstrated by corrected HB for both sexes, with greater accuracy for women. The best accuracy in the male group was obtained with the IJ equation but with a low level of agreement. Conclusions: The effectiveness of PEs is limited for estimating REE of critically ill elderly patients. Nonetheless, HB multiplied by a correction factor of 1.2 can be used until a specific PE for this group of patients is developed.