Contribution of glutaredoxin-1 to S-glutathionylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase for mesenteric nitric oxide generation in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is critical for intestinal microcirculatory perfusion and therefore plays a key role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). eNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) is inhibited by S-glutathionylation of eNOS (eNOS-SSG), which can be reversed by glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interplay between Grx1 and eNOS in regulating the following inflammation signal during the development of NEC. Primary mouse intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (MIMECs) and peritoneal macrophages were subjected to lipopolysaccharide treatment, and Grx1−/− mice were subjected to an NEC-inducing regimen of formula feeding in combination with hypoxia and hypothermia. The eNOS-SSG level and its activity were assessed using immunoprecipitated assay and NO production evaluation. NO-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and inflammation injury were further defined. NEC severity was significantly increased in Grx1−/− mice. Grx1−/− mice with NEC showed significantly decreased NO and increasedSymbol– production with increases in eNOS-SSG. Furthermore, TLR4 signaling, which is required for the development of NEC, was enhanced in the Grx1-deficient mice. These results suggest that eNOS-SSG within the MIMECs inhibited NO production and enhanced TLR4 activity, which were implicated in the pathogenesis of NEC. Grx1 deficiency increases the severity of NEC in association with eNOS-SSG.