The biphasic function of microglia in ischemic stroke
Microglia are brain resident macrophages originated from primitive progenitor cells in the yolk sac. Microglia can be activated within hours and recruited to the lesion site. Traditionally, microglia activation is considered to play a deleterious role in ischemic stroke, as inhibition of microglia activation attenuates ischemia induced brain injury. However, increasing evidence show that microglia activation is critical for attenuating neuronal apoptosis, enhancing neurogenesis, and promoting functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. Differential polarization of microglia could likely explain the biphasic role of microglia in ischemia. We comprehensively reviewed the mechanisms involved in regulating microglia activation and polarization. The latest discoveries of microRNAs in modulating microglia function are discussed. In addition, the interaction between microglia and other cells including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and stem cells were also reviewed. Future therapies targeting microglia may not exclusively aim at suppressing microglia activation, but also at modulating microglia polarization at different stages of ischemic stroke. More work is needed to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of microglia polarization under ischemic environment. The roles of microRNAs and transplanted stem cells in mediating microglia activation and polarization during brain ischemia also need to be further studied.