Safety of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Patients Equipped With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators
Background. Current guidelines warn of potential electromagnetic interferences (EMI) when using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure body composition in patients equipped with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). We aimed to test the occurrence of EMI in a setting where this risk was experimentally maximized. Materials and Methods. Outpatients scheduled for routine ICD controls simultaneously underwent a BIA measurement using an electrical current of 0.8 mAmp at frequencies from 5–100 kHz. ICD sensitivity levels were set to maximum levels while therapies were temporarily inactivated. The device electrograms were monitored in real time to detect sensed and/or visible EMI during BIA measurement. Results. A total of 63 patients equipped with single-chamber (n = 13), dual-chamber (n = 18), or biventricular (n = 32) ICDs from 5 major manufacturers were included. No EMI were detected by the ICDs in these patients, nor were any artifacts visualized during real-time electrogram recordings. Conclusion. BIA can be safely performed in patients equipped with ICDs without cardiac monitoring. Current guidelines should be updated accordingly.