Features and Role of Minimally Invasive Palliative Procedures for Pain Management in Malignant Pelvic Diseases: A Review
Pain is a common and debilitating symptom in pelvic cancer diseases. Failure in controlling this pain through pharmacological approaches calls for employing multimodal management and invasive techniques. Various strategies are commonly used for this purpose, including palliative radiotherapy, epidural medications and intrathecal administration of analgesic and local anesthetic drugs with pumps, and neural or plexus blockade. This review focuses on the features of minimally invasive palliative procedures (MIPPs), such as radiofrequency ablation, laser-induced thermotherapy, cryoablation, irreversible electroporation, electrochemotherapy, microwave ablation, and cementoplasty as well as their role in palliation of cancer pelvic pain. Despite the evidence of effectiveness and safety of these interventions, there are still many barriers to accessing MIPPs, including the availability of trained staff, the lack of precise criteria of indication, and the high costs.