Bone mineral density profile among post-menopausal women in Manipur: a hospital-based study

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To study the bone mineral density (BMD) profile in post-menopausal women and to examine the role of various socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological factors in predicting fracture risk in these patients.


This cross-sectional study recruited consenting postmenopausal women presenting with some form of pain complaints, such as joint pain, body ache, low back pain and so on. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic details. Height and weight were measured and BMI (body mass index) was calculated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed in three sites: lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and trochanteric region (TR) to assess BMD. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were collected.


There were 107 patients. Mean age was 59.70 ± 9.02 years and mean age at menopause was 46.37 ± 4.48 years. Fracture history was present in 25/107 (23.36%). Mean BMI observed was 25.34 ± 3.73. Women with fracture history had statistically significant differences in six factors, namely age, years since menopause, BMI and T-score measurements at LS, FN and TR (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis for these six variables revealed that no factor was independently associated with fracture risk, but those patients who had abnormal T-scores in all three regions had significant history of fracture (P = 0.04).


Age, age since menopause, BMI, and BMD T-score measurements at LS, FN and TR individually predict fracture risk, but none remain significant when all factors are considered together. Patients with abnormal BMD T-scores in all three sites more often gave histories of fractures. Further studies are warranted.

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