Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position
Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements.Methods:
Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error.Results:
All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys.Conclusion:
The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.