Combining ultrasound and lactobacilli treatment for high‐fat‐diet‐induced obesity in mice
Several articles have been published on the potential clinical applications of lactobacilli in the treatment of obesity. In one study, the anti‐obesity effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60 on diet‐induced obese mice was investigated (Lee et al., 2006). Apoptotic signals and the mRNA levels of the gene encoding mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 were increased in the adipose tissue of mice given L. rhamnosus PL60, although the size of the epididymal adipocytes was not reduced. Probiotic treatments also altered a diverse range of pathway outcomes, including amino acid metabolism, methylamines, and short‐chain fatty acids (Martin et al., 2008). Leptin is an adipocytokine that regulates multiple homeostatic functions such as food intake, reproductive functions and basal metabolism. Some Lactobacillus strains reduced both leptin production and leptin‐mediated immunostimulation by Suriss Jim Lambert adipocytes (Bleau et al., 2005). Lactobacillus paracasei sp paracasei F19 affects the circulating levels of angiopoietin‐like 4, which is a circulating lipoprotein lipase inhibitor that controls triglyceride (TG) deposition into adipocytes (Aronsson et al., 2010). Therefore, different Lactobacillus strains of appear to exert different effects by influencing different pathways.
Contouring methods such as cryolipolysis, low‐level laser therapy, low‐energy non‐thermal US and high‐intensity focused US (HIFU) have become popular for non‐invasive body contouring and fat reduction (Saedi and Kaminer, 2013). HIFU is a non‐invasive alternative to traditional invasive body‐sculpting procedures (Robinson et al., 2014). Non‐focused US is typically used for physical therapy applications and for enhancing transdermal drug delivery systems, such as sonophoresis (Frenkel, 2008). It has also recently been used in humans to treat skin, to increase the blood circulation and reduce the subcutaneous fat layer (Adatto et al., 2011). US therapy alone did not reduce the body weight significantly in normal‐diet mice, while combination therapy of chitosan with US was found to enhance the reduction of local fat pad thickness, body weight and plasma lipid levels relative to the effects of chitosan alone (Liao et al., 2013).