Clinical and morphologic spectrum of renal involvement in patients with HBV‐associated cryoglobulinaemia

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Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in vitro at temperatures less than 37 °C and produce organ damage. Cryoglobulinaemia is associated with many illnesses, which can be broadly grouped into infections, autoimmune disorders, and malignancies.1 Currently, the majority of mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) cases have been found to be associated with chronic HCV infection,2 and renal disease associated with HCV infection is now well described.4 However, in the mainland of China, lower prevalence rates of HCV infection (0.43%) have been reported6; on the other hand, where HBV infection is endemic in China; the HBsAg carrier rate among aged 1–60 was 7.18% in China by a national survey in 2006.7 Renal involvement in patients with MC related to HBV has been poorly described, with only a few cases reported, and the optimal treatment is unclear.8 Therefore, we must pay attention to MC patients related to HBV infection in China. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical features and renal biopsy findings in a small group of patients with MC glomerulonephritis and evidence of hepatitis B virus infection.
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