Trevor’s disease: up-to-date review of the literature with case series
Trevor’s disease, also known as dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, is a rare nonhereditary skeletal development disorder that affects epiphyses. This type of dysplastic lesion was first reported by Mouchet and Berlot in 1926 under the name ‘tarsomegaly’. The main aim of this study is to raise awareness of Trevor’s disease among orthopedic surgeons and underline some important aspects of treatment by a detailed presentation of four different possible manifestations of the disease. Four different treatment methods were used on four different patients (three localized in hindfoot ankle region and one classic Trevor’s disease case). Treatment methods, localization of the sides involved, different characteristics of entire lower extremity, asymetry, distal femoral lateral epiphysis involvement, and hip involvement were analyzed thoroughly and the results were compared with those found in the most recent literature. Of our four patients, three were localized (hind foot ankle) cases and one was a classic dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica with hemimelic distribution of the entire lower extremity. We used arthroscopic resection, observation, excision, and temporary hemiepiphysiodesis treatment methods in each of our cases. Clinical follow-up results were reported to be between good and excellent. In sum, our opinion is that the treatment for this condition should be customized according to lesion localization and lesion size. Majority of cases with ankle involvement show good prognosis following excision. Observation is also an alternative in patients who refuse surgery. If an intra-articular lesion is present, the surgeon should perform an arthroscopy for assessment of lesion surface. If the lesion is adapted to the joint curvature, it should be left alone and hemiepiphysiodesis should be considered for correction. The most risky involvements that are related to deformities and limb-length discrepancies are the hip and the knee. This is usually the result of corrective osteotomy targeted at the supracondylar femoral area in immature skeletons. Hemiepiphysiodesis might be a more feasible option in those cases as it provides the surgeon with the choice to remove the staples when necessary.