Anomalous intraosseous venous drainage: Bone perforators?
Anomalous intraosseous venous drainage is a rare and almost unknown entity; only 14 cases have been reported in the literature and 4 mentioned in textbooks. We report the characteristics of 35 further cases observed in 32 patients.Method
After the presentation of two cases at the congress of the French Society of Phlebology in Paris (2013), 12 colleagues joined to present a large series of so-called bone perforators observed in their practice, all identified with at least a duplex investigation.Results
Thirty-two patients suffering from varicose veins and/or skin changes (C2−C6) associated with a bone perforator of the tibia (with bilateral anomalies in three) are reported: 19 females and 13 males, average age 56.9. The majority of the affected legs were symptomatic (30/35). Bone perforator was an isolated finding in 27/35 legs. In three cases, the investigations revealed that the venous reflux in the bone originated from an incompetent posterior tibial vein.Conclusions
We suggest the name of “bone perforators” for an anomalous tibial intraosseous venous drainage, feeding varicose veins, and in more advanced stages lipodermatosclerosis and leg ulcers. Most of them were successfully treated with surgery or sclerotherapy.