Skin rash, diarrhea and hepatotoxicity are the most common toxicities of Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms of drug target, metabolizing enzymes and transporters on Gefitinib toxicities. Thirty single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including EGFR, cytochromes P450 and ATP-binding cassette (ABC), were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight platform in 59 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with Gefitinib. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate their effects on Gefitinib-induced toxicities. ABCB1 rs1128503 TT genotype was a significant high-risk determinant of both skin rash and diarrhea, with 15.78- and 10.78-fold of incident risk increased, respectively. (odds ratio (OR) = 15.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-124.1, P = 0.0087; OR = 10.78, 95% CI 1.54-75.40, P = 0.0166 vs non-TT genotypes). Patients with ABCB1 rs1128503 TT genotype had greater risk of skin rash and diarrhea. Therefore, polymorphism analyses of ABCB1 might be beneficial to optimize Gefitinib treatment.