Free breathing three-dimensional late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance using outer volume suppressed projection navigators

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To develop a three-dimensional, free-breathing, late gadolinium enhancement (3D FB-LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique, and to compare it with clinically used two-dimensional breath-hold LGE (2D BH-LGE).


The proposed 3D FB-LGE method consisted of inversion preparation, inversion delay, fat saturation, outer volume suppression, one-dimensional projection navigators, and a segmented stack of spirals acquisition. The 3D FB-LGE and 2D BH-LGE scans were performed on 29 cardiac patients. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis (in patients with scar) were performed.


No significant differences were noted between the 3D FB-LGE and 2D BH-LGE data sets in terms of overall image quality score (2D: 4.69 ± 0.60 versus 3D: 4.55 ± 0.51, P = 0.46) and image artifact score (2D: 1.10 ± 0.31 versus 3D: 1.17 ± 0.38; P = 0.63). The average difference in fractional scar volume between the 3D and 2D methods was 1.9% (n = 5). Acquisition time was significantly shorter for the 3D FB-LGE over 2D BH-LGE by a factor of 2.83 ± 0.77 (P < 0.0001).


The 3D FB-LGE is a viable option for patients, particularly in acute settings or in patients who are unable to comply with breath-hold instructions. Magn Reson Med 77:1533–1543, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

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