Transcutaneous and Percutaneous Neurostimulation for Headache Disorders
Noninvasive and minimally invasive extracranial stimulation has now been widely investigated for the treatment of primary headache disorders, particularly migraine. In this review, we describe methodological challenges in studying occipital and supraorbital stimulation devices. We explore the efficacy and safety of implantable occipital nerve stimulation for primary headache disorders, including the 3 randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials for chronic migraine treatment. We also review noninvasive supraorbital transcutaneous stimulation as a preventive therapy for episodic migraine.